The Premier League champions finished second in their group, behind Serie A's Roma with Atletico Madrid in third, and could as a result get a more difficult draw with Barca one of the possibilities.
With European heavyweights like Bayern Munich, Chelsea, Real Madrid and Juventus in pot two, there are guaranteed to be some blockbuster clashes in the second round.
In Group D, Barcelona - who had already guaranteed to top their group - defeated Sporting Lisbon 2-0.
CSKA drop into the Europa League, while FC Basel reached the last 16 after beating Benfica 2-0 in Lisbon courtesy of goals from Mohamed Elyounoussi and Dimitri Oberlin.
No English club can play another in the next round of the competition.
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That is bad news for Antonio Conte's side, who could be pitted against Champions League heavyweights including Barcelona and Paris Saint-Germain in next week's last 16 draw.
Atletico Madrid manager Diego Simeone is not concerned about his key players leaving after elimination from the Champions League.
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One of the advantages of winning your Champions League group is that this guarantees that a team will not have to play one of the other seven sides who topped their group too.
"I think the team has shown that we never give up, and we have a long season ahead, we will see what happens at the end of the season".
Who could Premier League teams draw in the Champions League?
It's lovely to watch, but they wouldn't get that time and space against a decent team, it's as simple as that. Shaw made his opportunity count with some explosive running down the flank and solid defensive contributions.
"We know we could play Barcelona or PSG".
The Europa League Round of 32 draw will take place at UEFA headquarters in Nyom at 12pm GMT on December 11 with the resulting ties to be played in principle on 15 and 22 February.
Christensen should have equalised from a Cesc Fabregas cross 10 minutes later, but the Chelsea defender somehow headed wide of the open goal. It was a depressing evening for both clubs at Stamford Bridge on Tuesday.
But in a year where he will likely win the Ballon d'Or, Ronaldo grabbed one record for himself.
They were defensively great, controlled the midfield battle and had every Chelsea defender in knots whenever they attacked.
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